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Machine Learning and Spirituality – Where do they meet ?

Machine Learning is about teaching the computer how to learn. There is a great difference between how we learn and how machines learn. Think back to a time when you were a toddler. You learnt the english alphabets from A to Z. How much time did it take you to read and write them. Maybe an year or two. Later you learnt the nuances of the language – the building blocks – words and the grammar to make sentences. It took some time, but you learnt it. What happened was that your brain took in this information and converted it into patterns. You see every day we are learning. Our neurons are plastic and hence malleable to new information. Either they get recorded in new neurons or existing ones change themselves to accommodate the influx of information. The thoughts that we linger upon, create deep neural pathways which are found in our subconscious minds.

Machine learning (deep learning) happens in a similar way. There are three ways a machine learns :

  • Supervised
  • Unsupervised
  • Reinforced

The first one (supervised) is a way of teaching the machines with human intervention. Take for example, a classification problem. Say there are oranges and apples in a bag and machine needs to identify which is which. For this problem, we may further divide it by looking at the weight and texture of these fruits. So we can evolve a rule which says that apples weigh less than 150 grams and oranges are above 170 grams. Now this has to be taught to the machine. There may be several such rules that are handed over to the machine.

In unsupervised learning, we throw a pattern at the machine and it learns from the algorithm that we feed in. For example, there is K-Nearest Neighbour algorithm in Clustering. To cut it short, the machine learns to predict the answer to a difficult problem, by looking at the nearest neighbour in a cluster of same data. The more distinct the cluster, the better the prediction of the algorithm. However, things in the real world can get messy.

To accommodate the variations that we come across in our day to day life, we need something that learns just like we do. A neural network. Something that works like our brain. The brain that we have consists of billions of neurons arranged in a layered manner. By that I mean an image like a dogs’ is stored in many layers. For example, the first layer may be the color, the second may be shape and so on. When we look at a dog, all these neurons fire and we understand that it is a dog. Further, if we have misjudged, the error gets back into the input, so that next time our judgement is better. This is how reinforcement works – for a human or a machine.

This concept of layers of perception is what drives deep learning. The more the number of layers, the more granular the understanding is and the more the data that we expose the machine to, the better is the prediction. This kind of learning is similar to how we learn, the only difference being that the computer is nowhere close to our parallel computing capabilities. However, they are picking up. With advances like using GPU’s and specialized AI chips like Tensor Processing Units (TPU), the rate of learning is going up.

So where do we go from here ? We all know that Machine Learning is behind driverless cars, the Amazon Echo and the new breed of games. Whatever our brain can do, will be one day be exceeded by machines. But do they really think ? It’s just an algorithm – maybe a self modifying one. Whereas we are not just our brain. That is just the hardware – the mind is the software where all the magic happens. Our emotions for instance (Call it from the heart or the mind) are an integral part of who we are. Our souls are much awakened than the machines’. We are in short,  a much more complex pattern than a machine. What we have to remember is that, a machine will never be able to replicate a human being fully. Our authentic self is a limited edition. Nobody in this universe carries our distinct signature. The machines will have their own place and we will have our space. Co-existence will be the key to the future.

Some folklore say that Kalki (the next avatar of God) is half man, half machine. You see, these are the things that we find fascinating, which a machine can never. We are made up of stories and machines simply are ‘0’s and ‘1’s strung together. The Earth loves the touch of your feet and the wind likes to play with your hair. Will a machine ever be able to feel the depths of these lines – you tell me.

The path to success – be your Self

There is only 1 rule to succeed in life – Be yourself. Too much of thinking can make you sick. And too much of emotions can also ruin your day. So you must be thinking, ‘How can anyone be anything except him/herself ?’ We all are being the best that we are, right ? No, we are not. Most of the times, we are either cerebral creatures or emotional creatures and sometimes a mix of the two. So, at the beginning, let’s define success. Everybody seems to be having their own ideas about it. In my definition, success is authenticity. How honest you have been with yourself and others. Let that come out. You see, no two trees are the same and no two humans are. We carry a distinct signature right from the time that we are born. And our only purpose in life is to discover who we are and then unleash it on the world. The day you realize yourself, you realize God.

So, the only thing we have to do is to turn inward and discover our Self. We all are beautiful creatures – children of that one single force which pervades everywhere. This realization is called Sankhya Yog. Once we start seeing God everywhere – inside and outside us – we move to the next step also called  Karma Yog. (the yoga of work) In this part of our life, we dedicate ourselves to work for the sake of work and not expecting anything in return. Let all work that you do be an obeisance to God. This automatically leads us to Bhakti Yog. the yoga of devotion) This is an inner s taste of mind, where you reminisce (Smriti) God in everything that you see or do. This means that you are in a prayer mode 24 by 7. Beyond this is Gnana Yog. (the yoga of knowledge) In this mode, you realize the wisdom that has been evading you – that you and God are one.

Remember, there are no goal posts. The only thing that is required of you is to be yourself. And that means rediscovering the you that’s so cleverly hidden away from your sight. In this short lifetime, all we got to do is recollect our lost foundation. That we are spirit and not this body or mind. We are pure energy. Can we see this energy ? No we can’t. Like we cannot see electricity and wind and although we can feel their effect. If we try to run our life depending on the 5 senses that we have – we will only get a partial view of the world. And as you know, this is too little. We are not a stone of the big mountain – we are the mountain, itself. Senses just help us survive. The day we open ourselves to the great spirit that we are – we are born again. There are many tools by which we can make progress in this journey. One is the computer – on which I’m typing right now.

There are so many ways in which a computer can lead us towards realization. One category of software called the productivity tools are especially important. For example, Office which typically consists of a word processor, an advanced calculator called as spreadsheet, a presentation tool and an email processing software. Using all these software makes us more efficient. You get your spell checker, you don’t have to know what 1478 * 34 and finally you get to align your ideas in slides, pictures etc. There are many, many other useful programs which can track our behaviours, identify early signs of diseases, take care of our priorities and so on. The only thing that is expected of us is to learn the application. In the near future you will be talking to machines as if they were one of us. Intentionally or unintentionally, machines are helping us to be ourselves and this my friend is the age of revelation. The dawn of a new era. An age of Self discovery – for every single one of us.

From Zero to One and Back to Zero

The world around us is a world of probabilities. At least, that’s how we perceive it, when we are awake. In unity, we perceive diversity. We see objects (everything) around us in a state of flux. All changing by the second. Of course, the building where we work doesn’t move from yesterday’s position. However, the people, the traffic lights and the general ambiance is on the move. If we are attentive enough, we perceive even those nuances. So, what is the lesson – everything around us changes – this is an undisputed law. Change is the only constant, as some say it. Now this change happens when we are fully awake. Today you have an IPO and tomorrow it’s just one of the stocks. Today you get a promotion and tomorrow you settle into it. The euphoria may last 1 day or 1 month or more, but we come back to status quo.

If you observe nature, you know that everything is cyclical. Summer comes after Spring and Winter comes after Fall. Our world is not different. Take a look at the markets. They follow this pattern. There is a bull market followed by a bear market and then back. Sometimes the markets shoot up like crazy and then plunge into depression. While all this is happening, we are looking at something called as a sure thing – there is no such thing. Disraeli had said that ‘The only sure thing is death and taxes’. Maybe he was right. I don’t know about taxes, but death is sure. And in this small time that we get to live, we try to maximize our joy and avoid pain. Reminds me of Dire Straits –

There will be sunshine after rain

There will be laughter after pain

These things have always been the same

So why worry now ?

Wise words have been said, but we are on an unending quest for more. More of joy. You know a human being is the only creature on this planet for whom a bottom line is set (birth) but there is no top line. Of course, death happens, but secretly we all like to believe that we are immortal. After death also we exist. True or not – The thing I’m sure about is that we won’t have this body. There are many after death stories which are doing the rounds, but I do not know, how far they are true. Despite knowing that we are all living mortals, we pursue things that we believe would bring us unbounded joy. All the while, we have been focusing outwards. We think that the sports car would bring us joy or maybe starting a unicorn would be deemed as success. We are 7.3 billion people with 7.3 trillion ideas of what success can be.

From zero (inward) we start focusing on one (outward) only to realize that we have to go back to zero. Now this is the master truism of life. Like Jesus said, we have to become like children to enter the kingdom of heaven. All these outer world material things won’t bring us bliss. It can give temporary highs of joy, but never unending bliss. Look at a child – why does he/she play ? Any reason ? They do it because they do it without a motive. Do they know what religion or what nation they belong to ? Do they know about the UN or the NATO ? All these so called things that we have created have begun to spiral out of control. What the world wants today, is to scrap the walls that we have built, pacify the wounds that we carry and go back to being like children. Focusing on Zero instead of one – from outer to inner – One world !

Inside Google Search

When you type something into Google Search, do you know what happens behind the scenes ? Let’s say you type ‘abc’ as shown below :

You get a list of values starting with ‘abc’ or with ‘abc’ within the text that you are trying to search. It seems so simple and straightforward, right ? But here’s what goes on behind the scenes :

In your machine

When you type the first letter ‘a’, this is what happens –

  1. Your keyboard code for ‘a’ goes into a keyboard buffer (temporary memory) and interrupts the Keyboard Support chip.
  2. This chip in turn raises an interrupt signal and this interrupt goes to the CPU which recognizes that the keyboard needs to be listened to.
  3. Now the CPU needs to display the letter ‘a’, so it interrupts the CRT controller chip (Display Chip), with the value ‘a’.
  4. The Display controller sends an ‘a’ to be displayed at the current cursor location. This travels through that cable which is attached to your Display, or in the case of a laptop, tablet or phone, to the display directly. The display chip is sometimes referred to as GPU (Graphics Processing Unit).

Behind the Google Search

As the Google Search is within the browser, here’s what happens.

  1. Javascript (Display programming language) accepts the input (‘abc’ in this case) and sends this input to the Google Server which is nearest to you. Note that the browser understands the Javascript language.
  2. The input now is given  to the browser, which in turn gives it to the operating system (OS) like Windows.
  3. The OS in turn will send this input to your network support chip or your network controller.
  4. From there this input (‘abc’) travels all the way to the Google servers (through wire or wireless).
  5. These servers are in a datacentre (a huge cluster of parallel servers) and the nearest server which is free to service your request will take it up.
  6. The cluster (group of servers) has a list of your previous searches and will try to return values which are closest to the input that you gave (‘abc’).
  7. This list of values is given back to your client through the same network.
  8. Once the values arrive at the client, a popup box opens up, to display all of them. This is also done in Javascript.
  9. What makes this feat possible is something called AJAX (Asynchronous Javascript and XML), a technology where a list of values is sent back as XML (Extensible Markup Language) through an asynchronous connection. (this means that the server will serve this request when it’s free)
  10. As shown in the above diagram, this is what happens behind the scenes. All of this in a jiffy. So much of data travelling from the innards of your machine to the server. So how is this possible without any delay ? The answer is Google Servers in the thousands that are responsible for delivering a swift and efficient connection.
  11. Sometimes you see a Google Server page without a network connection also. This is made possible by a local cache (local memory) which is used by Google.
  12. The server that services your request is called as an Edge Server (the server that’s closest to you geographically)

What does it mean ?

Our brains also work in a similar way, except slowly and fast. Slow – because our brains work at 50-500 bits / second, whereas the communication that we saw above happens at least at a speed of 1 Mb/ second. Fast – because our parallel neurons are much more complex than the Google data centre. Today, we learn about something called Deep Learning (a type of machine learning) which works like our brain. In Deep Learning, you emulate a neural network of say 10-20 layers. However, this is not even close to our brain, which is inherently and simultaneously parallel. But great progress is being made by advances in the field of Computer Science and sooner or later, machines will catch up with us. 15-20 years from now, give and take a few, machines will exceed a human brains capacity. No alarm bells here. Machines will be complementing us and replacing us in jobs which they do better than us. This means that we will have more time to spend on things we love to do – like say being with nature or maybe scuba diving. How the economics will work out – we do not know. But one thing is for sure – we will have a lot of time for ourselves – which means we can explore our spiritual / emotional dimensions and maybe discover that one alluring thing that evades us so subtly – our search for our Self.


How to treat emotions objectively

We are a bundle of the physical body, the mental mind, our emotions and a soul. A balance between all these four leads to a happy life. Let’s take emotions. Have you heard of something called EQ ? – It means the Emotional Quotient. To succeed in life a high IQ (Intellectual Quotient) is just not enough. We need a good EQ as well. Now what does that mean ? Emotions or some people call it as feelings can make or break you. Emotions are what makes us human. However, life cannot be just lived based on emotions. We feel anger and joy, we feel pleasure and pain and so on. Do you know that there are more than 100 (don’t know the exact number) kinds of emotions that we experience every day. Just like an average person has 50,000 thoughts per day – give and take some.

Given below is the Robert Plutchik  wheel of emotions

All of us have felt some or all of these emotions in a varying degree. For example, we feel sad and sometimes very sad i.e. depressed. We feel happy and sometimes very happy i.e. blissful. So why do we feel emotions – the main reason being our thoughts. Our thoughts trigger emotions. Sometimes emotions also trigger thoughts. Say you have booked movie tickets for your entire family. Feels good. When you drive to the theatre, there is lot of traffic. Suddenly the emotion that you feel is anxiety (whether you will reach there on time or not) What triggered this emotion is a thought in the mind. The thought may be saying ‘I’m so fed up with the traffic’. And subsequently you feel anxious. Anxiety can lead to rage and rage can further trigger other thoughts that are related. (for example, your rage emotion may make you recollect an incidence in the office with a colleague with whom you got angry) On and on it goes.

If you let emotions run your life, it’s going to be an expensive mistake. Work or business runs on facts and numbers. There is a space for emotions at work also, but you must keep it under check. Take for example, it’s appraisal time. If you feel that you have been rated lower than what you think, you can’t negotiate with your boss using emotions. You need to provide concrete proof that you have done what you deserve. And then also you don’t get that promotion, let it go. Learn to treat emotions objectively. Factual. You see a flower, smell it, enjoy it and move on. That is all there is to this joyful emotion. If you think that the same flower was given to you by your ex or the color red is not a good color and whatever other baggage that you have (your memories), don’t. Pull back. Learn to see things as they are and not as you want them to be.

We are strange creatures. Sometimes we are like lions and other times like a mouse. We are the only creature on this planet which can’t be defined. A tiger behaves like a tiger, an eagle goes about being an eagle. But us. We take on different roles. We pursue different interests. We have a thirst for the infinite. And we want it all, without having read the user manual for our life. Yes, we are emotional creatures. That separates us from a robot. But that won’t buy us a three course meal. There can be tumultuous emotional moments in our life. The idea is to, not let it get control over us and remember the Bible which says ‘And it came to pass …’ So enjoy this ride by treating all emotions objectively. A machine may take over your job, but it will never wonder looking at the skies, ‘Oh God, what a beautiful sunrise’. That’s what it means being human.

Meetings on my mind

In a meeting with my manager and colleagues

Catch some things said and some I miss

Thinking of when the meeting would end

Everyone has a point to append

Ten people with ten thousand views

Everyone wants to be a piece of the news

While I ask myself in this crowded place

Why do I feel lonely all these days

Finally, my turn to speak comes up

Put in my 2 cents in the tea cup

Looking for a bit of applause from here and there

And suddenly the meeting seems to be going nowhere

Thank God, someone says its over

I grab my note and head for my lair

And on my desk I find

Tasks beckoning my old mind

Think of the meeting and I frown

Things I would like to disown

But the myriad of tasks lying ahead

God, sometimes I feel like I’m dead

Then I hear the words of truth

We all got a job to do

As days go by and nights drift away

We all have promises to pay


Cyber Warfare – Are we ready to handle it ?

We live in a complex world. We are all so dependent on our devices like mobile phones, computers, cars and other accessories. All these tools simplify our life – or do they ? Some of us get addicted to these devices, so much so that we can’t imagine life without them. The unchecked mail, the always ringing telephone and other attention grabbing contraptions. One way, this can be defined as progress, however if it causes diseases like stress and other ailments, aren’t we going wrong somewhere ? One or two weeks in a year, we take a vacation to detox. After that, we are back in the rat race. Technology as a tool, was supposed to make our lives better, not more complex. Having said this, let me come to the subject of security.

Image result for cyber warfare images

With the explosion of tools like facebook, bebo and other social networks, the line between what is private and public id blurring. Answer this, what do you call private? Is it your deep secrets, your family, your friends – what information that matters to you do you not want to share with the world. At the click of a button, you can share that great photograph of your family and your friends family having lunch at that hotel. Now note that this information is open to your network. If you have chosen your friends carefully, this is a good thing. But imagine a negative persona getting this photograph. You know the remaining story, right !

Not to sound paranoid, the world is so full of information that it has become very easy to extract information from almost about anyone. Do you know the reason ? A chain is as strong as it’s weakest link (as the maxim goes) and the weak point here is, us. An Android or an Apple mobile phone is good to have. But do we realize the power that comes along with it. It’s like having a 24 karat gold chain (good to have) but it comes with the pandoras box. Malware is rising as time goes by – Dronejacking, DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service), Fileless programs, ransomware, zero day exploits because of vulnerabilities and many others trying to get to us – to rob us of our peace of mind. And we are vulnerable if we don’t understand how these attacks are carried out.

The next war that is being fought is – in the cyberspace. Imagine a farmer who is barely literate and receives an Android phone –

  • Is he aware that an antivirus needs to be installed?
  • Visiting some website on the browser is not safe.
  • Apps seeking more permissions than necessary can be a hidden worm.

By the way, if you look at Kaspersky Anti virus – they have claimed that a virus attacked their anti-virus program? So now if an anti-virus company had a virus, who are we to look up to ? By the way which software can you trust ?  We just trust the big brands. One reason that Apple products are known to be better than Android is because their encryption and overall design is more secure than an open source Android. Another reason could be their market share which is 1/5th of Android. Security is a major aspect of not just these big companies (who are doing it to their best abilities) but it starts with you and me. Educating ourselves against the threat that is out there is mandatory. We harnessed nuclear power – some made electricity and some made bombs – that is the difference – choose which side of the fence you want to be.

God Bless !

Can you teach me about tomorrow ?

What have we gotten ourselves into ?

The more we explore, the less we know

Weapons piling up, insurances rising

Meet strangers without ever smiling

Brothers and Sisters fighting a losing war

Over caste, creed, religion near and far

Instead of looking in, we look outside

Thinking that mamma will always be by our side

And the God that we look up to

Dissolves in the morning dew

And rains that drop on us from the skies

Are nothing but tears flowing from His eyes

How long are we going to live this curse ?

Created by us, not the Universe

Waiting for salvation sometime in the future

Is the answer hidden in that computer ?

He only knows who created this world

What might happen, or what might be told

But no matter what happens one thing we know

Blessed are you and me and the one we adore

To the end of time wherever it may take us

Rest in His bosom, as we awaken us

To the dawning of a new Earth when we shall be free

From all that sorrow, ego and cutting of the trees

Yes, we screwed up, how many chances should He give

Because He is the most merciful and His love is free

Sorry Sir from all of us here

Please help us once more to get there

The intersection of healthcare with technology

Healthcare is the second largest industry in the world after defense. There are many people involved in the Healthcare Chain.

  • Patient
  • Doctors / Nurses / Support personnel
  • Hospitals
  • Drug makers (Pharma companies)
  • Distributors and Wholesalers
  • Chemists
  • Insurance companies

All these participants above need to work like an automobile – the accelerator and the clutch are related, the carburettor and the ignition are related, the brakes work with the tyres and so on. An automobile (Patient) works most of the time, except it breaks down at times. And you need a mechanic (Doctor) to give you say oil (Chemists) which may be sold through middlemen (Distributors and Wholesalers) and manufactured by a company (Pharma companies). Sometimes the car may have to be taken to a specialized place like a showroom, for the lack of a better word (Hospital) where the treatment will be administered by mechanics (Doctors). To get treatment you may need an insurance (in some countries) or you may pay by cash / bank / credit cards etc.

Now the role of technology – The entire ecosystem can be addressed by a ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software like say SAP (I have not used this product) To each of the above participants you may have an ERP and the software used by each of these providers may talk to each other. (integration). These systems are not standalone. They need to talk with other systems.

Let’s discuss about doctors and patients – In many countries (developed) an EMR (Electronic Medical Record) is compulsory. This is a history of the patient’s ailments and the treatment rendered to him/her. This really helps a doctor because electronic records are safer and reliable than paper prescriptions. The developing worlds like India are still to catch this trend. In the US, there are 3-4 doctors per 1000 people. In Europe, it’s more. In developing/under developed countries I do not know the ratio, but it is less. (pathetically less). We need to empower the doctors and the patients.

How do we do that? The patients always need to be monitored (real time) with say fitbits, mobile cameras etc. (that means sensors) and that leads us to big data – because a lot of these information is coming from what is called as the Internet of Things (IoT) Currently only text and voice is being actively captured. The doctors need to periodically monitor this information, in fact an AI system will be able to assist doctors. The patient data is safe (private cloud) and only the patient and the doctor can access it (encryption) Doctors front end will be an AI system which scans and tries to arrive at a solution, but the doctor may be consulted, if it can’t figure out a remedy. Predictive Analytics can show the propensity of diseases that are likely to happen.

The doctor now becomes an expert / co-worker with the technology (robot, if I may use the word) and the patient data should be personalized. Soon, pharma companies will cater medicines specific to a patient’s genome. There is a lot of work to be done in this area. (we are just at the tip of the iceberg as far as genomics is concerned) Mainstream ERP companies will work closely with platform companies for example Hadoop companies (for Big data backend), Analytics companies (for visualization and predictions) and finally integration companies (which will make it a sticky stack).

The US healthcare industry is more than 3 trillion dollars. So, you can imagine how much money is spent globally. The whole chain is very complex. The number of doctors/ hospitals must go up. Technology may fill some gaps. And by 2020, we may be able to see some personalized medicines.

My request to all

  • Let developed countries help the developing and under developed countries with technology
  • Insurance does not have to be mandatory to get treatment
  • Technology is not a replacement for doctors. They are complementary. Hence, they will be assistants. A good doctor will never be replaced by technology
  • All people in the world deserve a good health. Let’s all work towards this vision.
  • Free for one – free for all. (because brothers/sisters of the world unite)

Have written this piece in a hurry. More to follow.

God Bless !


The power of Social Media

Social media is very popular nowadays. News reaches first on Social Media, before TV or Newspaper catches it. So what is this phenomenon ?


Image result for social media images

Social media is about 2 things :

  • Creating fresh content
  • Sharing the content

With every single, post, comment, like etc. new content gets created. The need of the hour is always for new and newer content. Some people modify some content and reformulate a post. This can also be termed as fresh content, albeit with a little twist. Our romance with content goes all the way back to creation. When the Lord created this world, he also created a lot of content. He still keeps creating it. Special power was endowed upon us human beings who are good at transforming this content. For example, we created rings, necklaces, cuffs etc. from gold. The material is the same – gold. But the meaning we attribute to it has changed. No animal does this. Transposing a content from another one. The underlying content remains the same, but the form has changed. We are getting pretty good at it, but have a long way to go.

Content that is created but not shared is like a poet who wrote his poetry without letting the world around him not know about it. It’s an irony. Lot of people die on this planet with the music still in them. Hence the need to share. The more the number of audience, the more is the power of the network. This is called Metcalfe’s law. But we should also have the wisdom to know, what should be shared and what shouldn’t. The more people you are able to touch with your content, the more powerful the inherent value is, of that content. A writer doesn’t write to impress. He writes to express him/herself. When his/her creative expression rings with somebody else, an experience happens, which cannot be described. Can you tell how much a poem or an article affected you? It’s simply priceless.

Social Media began eons ago when people started writing and earlier through voice. But this was limited. The printed press enhanced the reach. The telephone made it 2 way communication. Fast forward to the year 1989. – the birth of the world wide web (Sir Tim Berners Lee) This phenomenon called the internet put the power of the content in every persons hand. But true 2 way communication happened about the year 2000. You could not only visit websites, but you could comment, like, leave your email address and do things where the communication is 2 way or push/pull. With the advent of mobile gadgets the power has precipitated to the hands of an individual. Now everyone on the internet is a potential game changer. He/She has a voice that can influence a movement.

There are many ways to go about it. There are many channels or tools available for participating in this social media phenomenon. You know the obvious ones – Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Snapchat, WhatsApp and so on. All these tools provide you the power to collaborate with people. However, the nature of their content is different. For example, you don’t post your family photos on LinkedIn or post a professional article on Facebook. Some people do that too, Note, that these tools are embracing more and more newer types of content. The distinction between a public/private post is slowly getting blurred. Language is no more a barrier as Google Translate does a pretty good job. From websites, the trend is towards apps. And in the future, the primary interface through which we will communicate will be thoughts. May take a decade or two to get there.

Thank God for all that content, the power of creation and for helping us to touch other people in ways that cannot be described, but just felt. Thank you all for creating / participating in this beautiful universe.

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